[63][64] The waves are interpreted as a spiral pattern of vertical corrugations of 2 to 20 m amplitude;[65] the fact that the period of the waves is decreasing over time (from 60 km in 1995 to 30 km by 2006) allows a deduction that the pattern may have originated in late 1983 with the impact of a cloud of debris (with a mass of ≈1012 kg) from a disrupted comet that tilted the rings out of the equatorial plane. The last time there were collisions large enough to be likely to disrupt a moon that large was during the Late Heavy Bombardment some four billion years ago. [136][137][138], Saturn's second largest moon Rhea has been hypothesized to have a tenuous ring system of its own consisting of three narrow bands embedded in a disk of solid particles. Nach einer anderen Theorie sind die Ringe gemeinsam mit dem Saturn selbst aus derselben Materiewolke entstanden. There is an additional narrow ringlet just outside the Huygens Ringlet.[71]. This leaves a dark residue of "lag" material covering most of the equatorial region of Iapetus's leading hemisphere, which contrasts with the bright ice deposits covering the polar regions and most of the trailing hemisphere. [13] Voyager 1's closest approach occurred in November 1980 at a distance of 64,200 km. While the traditional view has been that it is held together by two shepherd moons, Prometheus and Pandora, which orbit inside and outside it,[89] recent studies indicate that only Prometheus contributes to the confinement. Using a 50× power refracting telescope that he designed himself, far superior to those available to Galileo, Huygens observed Saturn and in 1656, like Galileo, published the anagram "aaaaaaacccccdeeeeeghiiiiiiillllmmnnnnnnnnnooooppqrrstttttuuuuu". Ein weiteres Phänomen sind radiale, speichenartige Strukturen, die sich von innen nach außen über die Ringe des Saturn erstrecken und hierbei enorme Ausmaße annehmen: bei einer Breite von rund 100 km können sie bis zu 20.000 km lang werden. [citation needed], The inner edge of the Cassini Division is governed by a strong orbital resonance. [38] Most of the variability is due to the changing aspect of the rings,[39][40] and this goes through two cycles every orbit. Ved planetens … Obwohl er seine Ringe vielleicht schon seit seiner Entstehung besitzt, sind die Ringsysteme nicht stabil. [107][108] Numerical simulations suggest the ring was formed when Prometheus and Pandora collided with each other and were partially disrupted. ", "Cassini Probe Spies Spokes in Saturn's Rings", "Cassini Solstice Mission: A Small Find Near Equinox", "NASA Cassini Images May Reveal Birth of a Saturn Moon", "The discovery and dynamical evolution of an object at the outer edge of Saturn's a ring", "Saturn's Small Inner Satellites: Clues to Their Origins", "Saturn's Approach To Equinox Reveals Never-before-seen Vertical Structures In Planet's Rings", "Planetary Names: Ring and Ring Gap Nomenclature", "Eric Weisstein's World of Physics – Roche Limit", http://www.cbat.eps.harvard.edu/iauc/08400/08401.html, http://www.cbat.eps.harvard.edu/iauc/08400/08432.html, "The determination of the structure of Saturn's F ring by nearby moonlets", "On the masses and motions of mini-moons: Pandora's not a "shepherd," but Prometheus still is", "Cassini Discovers a Kinematic Spiral Ring Around Saturn", "NASA Finds Saturn's Moons May Be Creating New Rings", "S/2008 S 1. [50] Subsequent collisional or cryovolcanic evolution of Enceladus might then have caused selective loss of ice from this moon, raising its density to its current value of 1.61 g/cm3, compared to values of 1.15 for Mimas and 0.97 for Tethys. [3] The mass estimate alone is not very diagnostic, since high mass rings that formed early in the Solar System's history would have evolved by now to a mass close to that measured. Aus der Ferne betrachtet erscheinen sie als geschlossener ringscheibenförmiger Körper. Natural color view of the outer C Ring and B Ring. [71], Johann Encke himself did not observe this gap; it was named in honour of his ring observations. Im Jahre 1856 zeigte James Clerk Maxwell, dass stabile Ringe nur existieren können, wenn sie aus einer Vielzahl nicht zusammenhängender kleiner fester Körper bestehen.[11]. This would explain the apparent youth of some of the material within the rings. Notes: The leading theory regarding the spokes' composition is that they consist of microscopic dust particles suspended away from the main ring by electrostatic repulsion, as they rotate almost synchronously with the magnetosphere of Saturn. Daher pendelt jeder Brocken, der sich irgendwann an der Oberfläche des Ringsystems befindet, während eines Umlaufs einmal vertikal durch das Ringsystem hindurch und wieder zurück. Well beyond the main rings is the Phoebe ring, which is presumed to originate from Phoebe and thus to share its retrograde orbital motion. In 2007, the discovery of eight more moonlets revealed that they are largely confined to a 3,000 km belt, about 130,000 km from Saturn's center,[96] and by 2008 over 150 propeller moonlets had been detected. Erst durch Raumsonden erkannte man, dass die Ringe wiederum Lücken aufweisen und sich in noch kleinere eng begrenzte Unterringe aufteilen. Broader separations between named rings are termed divisions, while narrower separations within named rings are called gaps. Sie können bereits mit kleinen Fernrohren und Teleskopen für den Amateureinsatz beobachtet werden. Sie können Saturn, Planet, Ringe, Weltraum-Hintergrundbild aus den oben genannten Auflösungen herunterladen und dieses Desktop-Hintergrundbild über die obigen Links an Ihre Freunde weitergeben. Rätselhafterweise verschwanden diese Strukturen aber ab 1998 allmählich und konnten dann erst wieder ab September 2005 auf Aufnahmen der Raumsonde Cassini nachgewiesen werden. Its thickness is estimated as 5 to 15 m and its optical depth varies from 0.4 to greater than 5,[72] meaning that >99% of the light passing through some parts of the B Ring is blocked. This could be explained if they were absorbed by solid material in the form of an equatorial disk containing denser rings or arcs, with particles perhaps several decimeters to approximately a meter in diameter. astronomers find another Saturn ring", "Iapetus: Unique Surface Properties and a Global Color Dichotomy from Cassini Imaging", "Cassini Is on the Trail of a Runaway Mystery", "Cassini Closes In On The Centuries-old Mystery Of Saturn's Moon Iapetus", "The Dust Halo of Saturn's Largest Icy Moon, Rhea", "A Ringed Moon of Saturn? Then images from the Voyager spacecraft showed radial features in the B Ring, known as spokes,[74][75] which could not be explained in this manner, as their persistence and rotation around the rings was not consistent with gravitational orbital mechanics. However, data from Cassini suggest they are much younger, having most likely formed within the last 100 million years, and may thus be between 10 million and 100 million years old. A 2016 study of spiral density waves using stellar occultations indicated that the B Ring's surface density is in the range of 40 to 140 g/cm2, lower than previously believed, and that the ring's optical depth has little correlation with its mass density (a finding previously reported for the A and C rings). [132] Because the ring's particles are presumed to have originated from impacts (micrometeoroid and larger) on Phoebe, they should share its retrograde orbit,[129] which is opposite to the orbital motion of the next inner moon, Iapetus. Er glaubte, "Henkel" bei ihm zu sehen, die im Jahr 1612 plötzlich verschwunden waren (die Ringe befanden sich in Kantenstellung). Aus der Ferne sehen die Ringe aus wie ein festes Band rund um den Planeten. Als Ringe des Saturn (oder Saturnringe) wird das Ringsystem bezeichnet, das den Planeten Saturn umgibt. A few particles are as large as mountains. [112][117], The E Ring is the second outermost ring and is extremely wide; it consists of many tiny (micron and sub-micron) particles of water ice with silicates, carbon dioxide and ammonia. They have revealed many surprising things about Saturn's rings. Dieser Ring befindet sich außerhalb der hellen Hauptringe zwischen den schwachen Ringen F und G, im Bereich der Umlaufbahnen der kleinen Monde Janus und Epimetheus. Four robotic spacecraft have observed Saturn's rings from the vicinity of the planet. Bekannt ist er vor allem für das Ringsystem, das ihn umgibt. November 1850 entdeckt. [90], The Encke Gap is a gap because it is entirely within the A Ring. [54], Research based on rates of infall into Saturn favors a younger ring system age of hundreds of millions of years. Nevertheless, the Cassini imaging team kept looking for spokes in images of the rings, and they were next seen in images taken on 5 September 2005. Doch mit Berechnungen undspeziellen Messungen fand man heraus: Die Ringe bestehen aus Milliarden kleiner Staubkörner, Eiskristalle und Gesteinsbrocken. The ring particles mostly range from tiny, dust-sized icy grains to chunks as big as a house. Die Ringe bestehen aus einer ungeheuren Anzahl einzelner kleiner Materialbrocken, die den Saturn umkreisen. Jeder Brocken kreist einzeln um den Mittelpunkt des Saturn und nicht die Ringe als starres Gebilde. Ring particles at this location orbit twice for every orbit of the moon Mimas. [135] Rather, the infalling material initiates a positive feedback thermal self-segregation process of ice sublimation from warmer regions, followed by vapor condensation onto cooler regions. Immediately Wren recognised this as a better hypothesis than his own and De corpore saturni was never published. The equator of the leading hemisphere of Tethys is tinted slightly blue due to infalling material. [3][43] This recent origin scenario is based on a new, low mass estimate, modeling of the rings' dynamical evolution, and measurements of the flux of interplanetary dust, which feed into an estimate of the rate of ring darkening over time. The thickness of the A Ring is estimated to be 10 to 30 m, its surface density from 35 to 40 g/cm2 and its total mass as 4 to 5×1018 kg[72] (just under the mass of Hyperion). [3] Since the rings are continually losing material, they would have been more massive in the past than at present. [125], In October 2009, the discovery of a tenuous disk of material just interior to the orbit of Phoebe was reported. [7], Mit dem Spitzer-Weltraumteleskop wurde im Jahre 2009 ein wesentlich weiter außen liegender, vom Hauptringsystem unabhängiger Ring (besser Staubwolke) anhand seiner Infrarotstrahlung entdeckt. For the letter, see. Die anderen Gasplaneten besitzen zwar auch Ringe, aber die des Saturn sind am breitesten und am auffälligsten. [33], Although the largest gaps in the rings, such as the Cassini Division and Encke Gap, can be seen from Earth, the Voyager spacecraft discovered that the rings have an intricate structure of thousands of thin gaps and ringlets. Before Wren's theory was published Christiaan Huygens presented his theory of the rings of Saturn. Phoebe orbits the planet at a distance ranging from 180 to 250 radii. Die Ringe des Saturn, die vor 400 Jahren erstmals von Galileo durch ein Teleskop entdeckt wurden, sind in unserer Nachbarschaft einzigartig. [129] The ring was subsequently studied using the WISE, Herschel and Cassini spacecraft;[130] WISE observations show that it extends from at least between 50 and 100 to 270 Saturn radii (the inner edge is lost in the planet's glare). [119] Tendril-like structures observed within the E Ring can be related to the emissions of the most active south polar jets of Enceladus. [113] Dust released from Aegaeon and other source bodies within the arc by micrometeoroid impacts drifts outward from the arc because of interaction with Saturn's magnetosphere (whose plasma corotates with Saturn's magnetic field, which rotates much more rapidly than the orbital motion of the G Ring). Der nächst schwächere C-Ring wurde von George Phillips Bond am 15. The new research favors the latter scenario, indicating that they are unlikely to be older than 100 million years, as it would take that long for the C-ring to become what it is today assuming it was once as dense as the B-ring. [16] Cassini spacecraft entered into orbit around Saturn in July 2004. Under the influence of the same resonance, Anthe drifts back and forth in its orbit over 14° of longitude. The ring has a radial extent of about 5,000 km. Although reflection from the rings increases Saturn's brightness, they are not visible from Earth with unaided vision. F- Ring des Saturn Der F- Ring, einer der äußeren Ringe des Saturn in einer Aufnahme von Voyager 1. Spiral bending waves, also present in the A Ring and also described by the same theory, are vertical corrugations in the ring rather than compression waves. [113][114] The arc is believed to be composed of icy particles up to a few m in diameter, with the rest of the G Ring consisting of dust released from within the arc. It is primarily acted on by the 7:6 resonance with Janus and Epimetheus, with other contributions from the 5:3 resonance with Mimas and various resonances with Prometheus and Pandora. [10], In 1787, Pierre-Simon Laplace proved that a uniform solid ring would be unstable and suggested that the rings were composed of a large number of solid ringlets.[4][11]. [98], The separation between the A ring and the F Ring has been named the Roche Division in honor of the French physicist Édouard Roche. Wissenschaft Saturn - Planet der Ringe. The B Ring contains a great deal of variation in its density and brightness, nearly all of it unexplained. [4][9] Robert Hooke was another early observer of the rings of Saturn, and noted the casting of shadows on the rings. Der holländische Astronom Christiaan Huygens beschrieb die Ringe 45 Jahre später korrekt: Giovanni Domenico Cassini vermutete als erster, dass die Ringe aus einzelnen Partikeln bestehen, und entdeckte 1675 die markanteste Lücke im Ringsystem, die nach ihm benannte Cassinische Teilung, die den damalig bekannten Ring in einen helleren äußeren A-Ring und einen etwas dunkleren inneren B-Ring teilte. Die räumliche Variation der Anziehungskräfte durch den Saturn übersteigt in diesem Fall die mondinternen Gravitationskräfte, so dass der Mond nur noch durch seine materielle Struktur zusammengehalten wird. [58][59][60] Auch hier gilt, dass die Dicke dieser Scheiben durch die Häufigkeit inelastischer Stöße ihrer Komponenten bestimmt wird. [52] Evidence suggesting a recent origin of the C ring has been gathered by researchers analyzing data from the Cassini Titan Radar Mapper, which focused on analyzing the proportion of rocky silicates within this ring. A narrower gap 2% of the ring width from the outer edge is called the Keeler Gap. Gegen das innere Ringsystem ist er um 27° geneigt. [53], The Cassini UVIS team, led by Larry Esposito, used stellar occultation to discover 13 objects, ranging from 27 m to 10 km across, within the F ring. [128][133] The three had studied together at Cornell University as graduate students. Galilei erkannte die Ringe jedoch nicht als isolierte Objekte, sondern deutete sie als Henkel (ansae). Je nach Position des Saturn auf seiner Umlaufbahn ändert sich der Winkel zwischen den Saturnringen und der Sonne und somit auch der Einfallswinkel des ultravioletten Lichts. [citation needed], New images of the rings taken around the 11 August 2009 equinox of Saturn by NASA's Cassini spacecraft have shown that the rings extend significantly out of the nominal ring plane in a few places. [86][87], The Encke Gap is a 325-km-wide gap within the A ring, centered at a distance of 133,590 km from Saturn's center. The confinement of the dust within the arc is attributable to a 14:15 resonance with Mimas (similar to the mechanism of confinement of the arc within the G ring). A video showing the arc's orbital motion may be viewed on YouTube[146] or the Cassini Imaging Team website.[147]. [citation needed] Two locations in the Roche Division have a higher concentration of dust than the rest of the region. Saturn har 82 kjente måner. These are concentric, appearing as narrow ringlets, though the B Ring does not contain any gaps. [49][50] This would explain the scarcity of rocky material within the rings. It only has one-eighth the average density of Earth; however, with its larger volume, Saturn is over 95 times more massive. Die extrem geringe Dicke des Ringsystems geht auf Stöße der Partikel zurück. In 2009, during equinox, a moonlet embedded in the B ring was discovered from the shadow it cast. [12] Spectroscopic studies of the rings carried out in 1895 by James Keeler of Allegheny Observatory and Aristarkh Belopolsky of Pulkovo Observatory showed Maxwell's analysis was correct. Semejkin.[5][6]. Både Jupiter, Uranus og Neptun har ringe, men de er meget mindre og slet ikke så lette at observere som Saturns ringe. [72], Similarly to the B Ring, the A Ring's outer edge is maintained by orbital resonances, albeit in this case a more complicated set. The G Ring (see last image in gallery) is a very thin, faint ring about halfway between the F Ring and the beginning of the E Ring, with its inner edge about 15,000 km inside the orbit of Mimas. Eine streifenlose Phase hält dagegen 6 bis 7 Jahre lang an. [14] Voyager 2's working photopolarimeter allowed it to observe the ring system at higher resolution than Voyager 1, and to thereby discover many previously unseen ringlets. Saturn kendes på sine markante ringe, som består af utallige små is- og stenpartikler. Januar 2021 um 08:30 Uhr bearbeitet. If much of this material was contributed by a recently disrupted centaur or moon, the age of this ring could be on the order of 100 million years or less. "[4] He mused, "Has Saturn swallowed his children?" Heute ist bekannt, dass das Hauptringsystem mehr als 100.000 einzelne Ringe mit unterschiedlichen Zusammensetzungen und Farbtönen beinhaltet, welche durch scharf umrissene Lücken voneinander abgegrenzt sind. Saturn is the sixth planet out from our sun, and bigger than any other planet except Jupiter. [46] A variation on this theory is that this moon disintegrated after being struck by a large comet or asteroid. Er besteht vermutlich aus Teilchen, die von diesen Satelliten aus bei Einschlägen von Meteoriten ins All geschleudert wurden. However, Voyager discovered that the gap is itself populated by ring material bearing much similarity to the C Ring. Ingen ved, hvordan ringene er opstået, men meget tyder på, at de er kommet kort efter, Saturn blev dannet. Eine Erklärung ist, dass Blitze in der oberen Atmosphäre des Saturn auftreten, welche durch komplexe Vorgänge Elektronenstrahlen erzeugen, die die Ringe treffen[14]. [9], Mit dem Weltraumteleskop WISE wurde 2015 festgestellt, dass sich der Ring in einer Entfernung von 6 bis 16 Millionen Kilometer von der Saturnoberfläche erstreckt. There is still no consensus as to their mechanism of formation. Planeten er unik med sitt enorme og spektakulære ringsystem. [2] On the scale of the clumps within the rings there is much empty space. This ringlet exhibits irregular azimuthal variations of geometrical width and optical depth, which may be caused by the nearby 2:1 resonance with Mimas and the influence of the eccentric outer edge of the B-ring. Cassini image of the sun-lit side of the rings taken in 2009 at a phase angle of 144°, with bright B Ring spokes. This displacement reaches as much as 4 km (2.5 mi) at the border of the Keeler Gap, due to the out-of-plane orbit of Daphnis, the moon that creates the gap. Das Ringsystem hat viele größere und kleinere Lücken. The gap itself was discovered by James Edward Keeler in 1888. [113] The arc is thought to contain matter equivalent to a small icy moonlet about a hundred m in diameter. Other gaps arise from resonances between the orbital period of particles in the gap and that of a more massive moon further out; Mimas maintains the Cassini Division in this manner. Die Weltraumsonde Cassini hat es geschafft, sich so dicht an den Saturn heranzupirschen, dass Forscher endlich jahrhundertealte Rätsel lösen können. Its source is particles blasted off Pallene's surface by meteoroid impacts, which then form a diffuse ring around its orbital path. Die Ringe sind aus über 100.000 einzelnen Ringen zusammengesetzt. [8], In 1675, Giovanni Domenico Cassini determined that Saturn's ring was composed of multiple smaller rings with gaps between them; the largest of these gaps was later named the Cassini Division. US-amerikanische Astronomen fanden 2006 jedoch eine andere Erklärung für das Rätsel um die Speichenstrukturen: Demnach bestehen die Speichen aus winzigen (wenige µm) geladenen Staubpartikeln, deren Flugbahn vom UV-Licht der Sonne so beeinflusst wird, dass die Partikel durch entstehende elektrostatische Kräfte in einen Schwebezustand (Levitation) gebracht und angehoben werden[13]. The structures shown (from 40 km wide ringlets at center to 300–500 km wide bands at right) remain sharply defined at scales below the resolution of the image. [47] The second theory is that the rings were never part of a moon, but are instead left over from the original nebular material from which Saturn formed. In many respects this ringlet is similar to the ε ring of Uranus. The Colombo Gap lies in the inner C Ring. The small moon Daphnis, discovered 1 May 2005, orbits within it, keeping it clear. Das Ringsystem wird von größeren und kleineren Lücken in konzentrische Einzelringe unterteilt. Saturns ringe. [69] The second major gap in the A ring, discovered by Voyager, was named the Keeler Gap in his honor. [70], The Maxwell Gap lies within the outer part of the C Ring. Saturn's volume is greater than 760 Earths, and it is the second most massive planet in … However Wren was unsure whether the ring was independent of the planet, or physically attached to it. Ringene består af små isklumper, mindre sten og støvpartikler. Ringene består av billioner av isklumper. It was discovered using NASA's infrared Spitzer Space Telescope,[127] and was seen over the entire range of the observations, which extended from 128 to 207 times the radius of Saturn,[128] with calculations indicating that it may extend outward up to 300 Saturn radii and inward to the orbit of Iapetus at 59 Saturn radii. Damit Ihr den Saturn Steckbrief erstellen könnt, müsst Ihr wissen, warum er Ringe hat. The rings have numerous gaps where particle density drops sharply: two opened by known moons embedded within them, and many others at locations of known destabilizing orbital resonances with the moons of Saturn. [101], Like the Cassini Division, the Roche Division is not empty but contains a sheet of material. Die Ringe des Saturn sind keine Ringe im eigentlichen Sinne. Saturn's shadow truncates the backlit G Ring and its bright inner arc. Once outside the rings, the newly formed moons could have continued to evolve through random mergers. Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second-largest in the Solar System, after Jupiter.It is a gas giant with an average radius of about nine times that of Earth. It contains a single distinctly brighter arc near its inner edge (similar to the arcs in the rings of Neptune) that extends about one sixth of its circumference, centered on the half-km diameter moonlet Aegaeon, which is held in place by a 7:6 orbital resonance with Mimas. Auf astronomischen Übersichtsaufnahmen sind gewöhnlich nur der A- und der B-Ring und die sie trennende Cassini-Teilung, allenfalls noch die Encke-Teilung im A-Ring zu sehen. [11] Later, Sofia Kovalevskaya also found that Saturn's rings cannot be liquid ring-shaped bodies. [3] Based on current depletion rates, they may disappear in 300 million years. [35] Still more structure in the rings consists of spiral waves raised by the inner moons' periodic gravitational perturbations at less disruptive resonances. [123], Particles of the E Ring tend to accumulate on moons that orbit within it. Der Saturn ist der sechste Planet im Sonnensystem, zweitgrößter nach Jupiter und annähernd hundertfach so massereich wie die Erde.Besonders auffällig sind die Ringe um den Saturn, weswegen man ihn auch als Ringplanet bezeichnet. The narrow F Ring, just off the outer edge of the A Ring, is more difficult to categorize; parts of it are very dense, but it also contains a great deal of dust-size particles. Pioneer 11's closest approach to Saturn occurred in September 1979 at a distance of 20,900 km. The wavelength decreases as the wave propagates away from the resonance, so the apparent foreshortening in the image is illusory. [55] While traversing the gap between the rings and planet in September 2017, the Cassini spacecraft detected an equatorial flow of charge-neutral material from the rings to the planet of 4,800–44,000 kg/s. The A Ring is the outermost of the large, bright rings. Es wird angenommen, dass der Ring aus Material des Mondes Phoebe stammt. They are translucent, suggesting they are temporary aggregates of ice boulders a few meters across. They consist of countless small particles, ranging in size from micrometers to meters, that orbit about Saturn. The most recent ring plane crossings were on 22 May 1995, 10 August 1995, 11 February 1996 and 4 September 2009; upcoming events will occur on 23 March 2025, 15 October 2038, 1 April 2039 and 9 July 2039. Nach einer Abwandlung dieser Theorie zerbrach der Mond durch eine Kollision mit einem Kometen oder Asteroiden. Es ist das auffälligste und charakteristische Merkmal des Planeten und durch ein Fernrohr ab etwa 40-facher Vergrößerung sichtbar. [12] Diese Speichen wurden erstmals von der Sonde Voyager 2 bei ihrer Passage im Jahr 1981 entdeckt, später konnte die Beobachtung u. a. vom Weltraumteleskop Hubble bestätigt werden. Als Ursache für die Streifenbildung wurde zunächst eine kurzlebige Wechselwirkung mit dem Magnetfeld des Saturn vermutet. [n 2]. [62][63][66] A similar spiral pattern in Jupiter's main ring has been attributed to a perturbation caused by impact of material from Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 in 1994. Saturn's rings are thought to be pieces of comets, asteroids or shattered moons that broke up before they reached the planet, torn apart by Saturn's powerful gravity. William Lassell termed it the "Crepe Ring" because it seemed to be composed of darker material than the brighter A and B Rings.[69]. Phoebe is inclined by 5° with respect to Saturn's orbit plane (often written as 175°, due to Phoebe's retrograde orbital motion), and its resulting vertical excursions above and below the ring plane agree closely with the ring's observed thickness of 40 Saturn radii. Some gaps are cleared out by the passage of tiny moonlets such as Pan,[34] many more of which may yet be discovered, and some ringlets seem to be maintained by the gravitational effects of small shepherd satellites (similar to Prometheus and Pandora's maintenance of the F ring). [37] This division is a 4,800-km-wide region between the A ring and B Ring. The densest parts of the Saturnian ring system are the A and B Rings, which are separated by the Cassini Division (discovered in 1675 by Giovanni Domenico Cassini). [29] The main rings are primarily composed of particles ranging in size from 1 cm to 10 m.[30], Cassini directly measured the mass of the ring system via their gravitational effect during its final set of orbits that passed between the rings and the cloud tops, yielding a value of 1.54 (± 0.49) × 1019 kg, or 0.41 ± 0.13 Mimas masses. Januar 1888 von James Edward Keeler am Lick-Observatorium beobachtet. (3) distance is to centre of gaps, rings and ringlets that are narrower than 1,000 km Die Ringe liegen alle in einer Ebene, so wie die Rillen einer Schallplatte.

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